Arabic Grammar Nahw and Sarf PDF 26: A Comprehensive Guide to Arabic Grammar
If you are interested in learning Arabic grammar, you might have come across the terms nahw and sarf. These are the two main branches of Arabic grammar that deal with syntax and morphology respectively. Syntax is the study of how words are arranged and connected to form sentences, while morphology is the study of how words are formed and changed to convey different meanings. Nahw and sarf are essential for understanding and producing correct Arabic sentences.
What is nahw?
Nahw is the Arabic term for syntax, which literally means "the way" or "the path". Nahw is concerned with the rules and principles that govern the structure and meaning of sentences in Arabic. Nahw covers topics such as parts of speech, grammatical case, gender, number, agreement, word order, sentence types, clauses, conjunctions, negation, interrogation, and more.
Nahw is based on the analysis of the ʿirāb (inflection) of words in a sentence. ʿIrāb is the change in the ending of a word to indicate its grammatical function and relation to other words in the sentence. For example, in the sentence "al-waladu ḍaraba al-kitāba" (the boy hit the book), the word "al-waladu" has a damma (u) at the end to indicate that it is the subject (nominative case) of the verb "ḍaraba", while the word "al-kitāba" has a fatha (a) at the end to indicate that it is the object (accusative case) of the verb "ḍaraba". The ʿirāb of words can also show other grammatical features such as gender, number, definiteness, possession, etc.
Nahw is derived from the works of early Arab grammarians who developed a sophisticated system of describing and explaining the language of the Qurʾān and classical Arabic literature. The most famous and influential work of nahw is al-Kitaab by Sibawayhi (d. 180/796), which is considered the first comprehensive and systematic book of Arabic grammar. Sibawayhi's work was followed by many other works by later grammarians who refined and expanded his theory and methodology.
What is sarf?
Sarf is the Arabic term for morphology, which literally means "the form" or "the shape". Sarf is concerned with the rules and patterns that govern the formation and derivation of words in Arabic. Sarf covers topics such as roots, patterns, verb conjugation, noun declension, derivation, diminution, augmentation, and more.
Sarf is based on the analysis of the wazn (pattern) and ṣiġa (form) of words in Arabic. Wazn is the abstract template or skeleton that shows how letters are arranged to form a word. Ṣiġa is the concrete realization or manifestation of a wazn with specific letters. For example, in the word "kataba" (he wrote), the wazn is faʿala (where f, ʿ, and l are placeholders for any consonant), and the ṣiġa is kataba (where k, t, and b are actual consonants). The wazn faʿala can produce many other words with different meanings by changing the consonants, such as "qatala" (he killed), "sakata" (he was silent), "daraba" (he hit), etc.
Sarf is derived from the works of early Arab lexicographers who collected and classified words according to their roots and patterns. The most famous and influential work of sarf is al-Muḫaṣṣaṣ by Ibn Sīda (d. 458/1066), which is considered one of the most comprehensive and systematic books of Arabic morphology. Ibn Sīda's work was followed by many other works by later lexicographers who refined and expanded his theory and methodology.
Why should you learn nahw and sarf?
Nahw and sarf are the two main branches of Arabic grammar that deal with syntax and morphology respectively. They are essential for understanding and producing correct Arabic sentences. They are based on the works of early Arab grammarians and lexicographers who developed a sophisticated system of describing and explaining the language of the Qurʾān and classical Arabic literature. Nahw and sarf are also useful for learning other aspects of Arabic language and culture, such as rhetoric, poetry, literature, history, and religion.
If you want to learn nahw and sarf in a comprehensive and systematic way, you can download Arabic Grammar Nahw and Sarf PDF 26. This is a PDF file that contains 26 lessons on nahw and sarf, covering all the topics and rules that you need to know. Each lesson has an explanation, examples, exercises, and answers. You can also find additional resources and references at the end of the PDF file. Arabic Grammar Nahw and Sarf PDF 26 is a great guide for beginners as well as advanced learners of Arabic grammar. d282676c82